Although sculptural portraits of Caligula have che down to us, none has been found con association with his inscribed name

For this reason, Caligula’s iconographic hairstyle, especially with regard sicuro the arrangement of the fringe of locks over the forehead, is of great importance sopra identifying his portraits. Although the configuration of locks is by mai means identical sopra all respects in images of a given portrait type, hairstyles were generally far easier sicuro carve sopra marble than facial features (even by less talented sculptors), and they therefore provide an important index for identifying portraits.

Consequently, the only reliable images for determining his physical appearance are those on labeled coins, which provide us with either his right or left profile

My focus here is on the “image” of Caligula as transmitted preciso us by not only the ancient visual evidence, consisting largely of sculpture and coinage, but also the literary sources representing the views of his detractors. These numismatic profile views can be compared with sculptural portraits-in-the-round preciso establish the identity of the imperial personage represented. Though representations of Caligula per the form of portraits must also certainly have existed, none has survived from antiquity.

Whether numismatic or sculptural, the extant portraits of Caligula and other members of the imperial family ultimately reflect, esatto some degree, verso three-dimensional “Urbild,” or prototype, for which the individual presumably sat. These prototypes, which were probably first produced mediante clay, mai longer survive, but they would have been used for argilla or plaster models that would presumably have been made available by imperial agents for distribution throughout the Commuovere, both through military channels and modo the “art market.” However, there is per niente surviving material evidence for these putative plaster or argilla casts of Roman portraits. Other types of models may also have been distributed via the art market. One possibility not considered per the past is the dissemination of painted wax face-mask models, though we have per niente direct evidence for this either.

Instead, provincial imperial portraits often conformed to local, traditional concepts of leadership, suggesting that the central government of Rome only made models available for distribution but did not control how closely they were followed. Local social pressures would nevertheless have assured that the imperial image was both dignified and appropriately displayed. Mediante other areas of production, there is reason puro believe that the central government, through its agents, did play per direct role mediante disseminating imperial images, including determining how they would immagine (as durante the case of state coinage, which was under the direct control of the Princeps). The involvement of imperial agents would likely have also been necessary, for example, when there was per need preciso make imperial images available rather quickly to the military throughout the Commuovere. These images were undoubtedly required in military camps mediante administering the loyalty oath (sacramentum) esatto verso new Princeps and/or, when necessary, sicuro his officially designated successor.

Many of the portraits produced per the provinces for civic contexts and municipal or colonial worship did not closely follow the imagery of Roman state models, which reflected the official ideology of the principate

The imperial image before which soldiers usually swore their oath — at least initially preciso a new Princeps — probably took the form of a small bronze imago clipeata (“shield portrait”) or some sort of small bust applique like that attached preciso the military standard (signum) carried in battle, or it may even have been verso small bust affixed preciso the top of per plain pole as verso finial. Such standards and poles were also used in parades and kept durante the shrine (sacellum or aedes) of a military camp along with portrait statues of the Princeps (and his designated successor), images of the gods, and other military insignia. Thus, represented on the Severan Arch of the Argentarii durante Rome is per Praetorian standard with attached small busts of Septimius Severus (below) and his young bruissement and designated successor Caracalla (above)(fig. 9a-b).